In a Tortoiseshell: In this excerpt, Sewheat demonstrates a clear command of motive, addressing the existing scholarly commentary on Ralph Steiner’s Saratoga Billboard (1929), which only provide literal interpretations of the work’s subject matter, and then moving beyond the scope of current scholarship to analyze the piece from an artistic perspective.
In a Tortoiseshell: In this excerpt, Jessica explores the motivation behind Augustine’s identification of Chanani with Chananaei when referring to North African congregants in Roman Africa during the late fourth century CE. She challenges the historical argument that this identification reveals the internal ethnic identification of Punic-speakers because it fails to consider the Latin-speaking perspective and the theological context, which is a strong motive.
In a Tortoiseshell: This essay argues that Florine Stettheimer’s 1933 painting Family Portrait II is a critique of the elitist society of 1920s New York and thus an extension of her Cathedrals series. In this excerpt, Cara beautifully introduces both her internal motive, which is the stark contrast she noticed between Family Portrait I and this painting, and her scholarly motive, which is the oversight in the art community of this painting’s social significance.